Light of the Spirit Blog

A Brief Sanskrit Glossary Now Available in Print at Amazon.com

by:
September 24, 2014

We are happy to announce that we have another book available in print through Light of the Spirit Press:  A Brief Sanskrit Glossary—A Spiritual Student’s Guide to Essential Sanskrit Terms, compiled by Abbot George Burke.

As it says in the Preface of the Glossary:

“It is very beneficial for students of Indian thought, of the Bhagavad Gita, the Upanishads, the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, and other Indian scriptures and philosophical works to expand their vocabularies to include the sanskrit terms included in them. English books about these works often contain many untranslated sanskrit words because there are no concise English equivalents.”

This glossary contains 142 pages of full translations and explanations of many of the most commonly used sanskrit terms, and will help students of these spiritual treatises gain a fuller understanding in their studies.

Here is an example of some of the definitions:

Dasya: The attitude of being a servant of God.

Dasyu: Slave; a name for non-Aryans in the Rig Veda.

Dattatreya: A famous sage, son of the Rishi Atri and Anasuya. His birth was a divine boon, hence his name: Datta–“given”–and atreya–“son of Atri.” Considered a divine incarnation and known as the Lord of Avadhutas, he is often revered as the embodiment of the Supreme Guru. He is credited with the authorship of the Avadhuta Gita, the Jivanmukti Gita, and the Tripura Rahashya.

Daya: Mercy; compassion; grace; empathy.

Dayananda (Maharishi Swami): A leading reformer within Hinduism in the nineteenth century and the founder of the Arya Samaj.

A Brief Sanskrit Glossary is available at Amazon.com as a 142 page paperback. It lists for $12.95, but Amazon normally sells it for 10% off. You can still access the Glossary online at OCOY.org from our left sidebar at any time. But having a print book on hand makes study much easier. We hope if you purchase this book, that you will consider giving it a review on Amazon.

Also available by Abbot George Burke on Amazon: The Dhammapada for Awakening—A Commentary on Buddha’s Practical Wisdom, a 320 page paperback regarding which one Amazon reviewer said,

“The writing is well crafted and stocked with anecdotes, humor, literary references and beautiful quotes from the Buddha. I found it to be entertaining as well as illuminating and have come to consider it a guide to daily living.”

Get it now at Amazon.com!

Om, the God-Word

Om the spoken form of GodSutras 27 through 30 of Book One of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

27. His designator [vachaka] is ‘Om’ [Pranava].

Usually, vachaka means that which is denoted by speech, in this case meaning that Ishwara is designated by the Pranava–by the sacred syllable OM. But it can also mean the spoken form of something that has a very real connection with the object of which it is the vachaka–and sometimes is the same as the object. This is the case with mantras, and that is why it is often said that God and His Name are really the same thing. Om embodies Brahman.

Further, this sutra can legitimately be considered to mean that Ishwara projects the creation through the vibration (“utterance”) of Om, that Ishwara “speaks” or projects the creative Vibration that is Om, and in this way all things come into existence, Om being the seed of all things.

28. Its constant repetition and meditation on its meaning.

It is a mystery as to why this sutra is so terse. Does it mean that the japa and meditation of Om are to be done continually, or is it being recommended as a temporary or occasional practice only in relation to the following sutra?

[We have recently added a new book about meditation on Om which we recommend you read: Om Yoga: It's Theory and Practice.]

29. From it (result) the disappearance of obstacles and turning inward of consciousness.

This is quite clear. Now Patanjali enumerates the obstacles and their effects on us.

30. Disease [vyadhi], languor [styana], doubt [samshaya], carelessness [pramada], laziness [alasya], worldly-mindedness [avirati], delu­sion [bhranti-darshana], non-achievement of a stage [alabdhabhumikatva], instability [anavashtitatvani], these (nine) cause the distraction of the mind and they are the obstacles.

These are too important to not look at closely. After the definition of each I will give I. K. Taimni’s comments from The Science of Yoga.

Vyadhi: Disease of the body.

“This is obviously a hindrance in the path of the Yogi because it draws the mind again and again to the physical body and makes it difficult to keep it directed inwards. Perfect health is a necessity for treading the path of Yoga and that is, no doubt, one of the reasons why the author has included Asana and Pranayama, two practices of Hatha Yoga, in his system.”

Styana: Dullness; languor, debility; drooping state.

“Some people have an apparently healthy physical body but lack nerve power so that they always feel below par and disinclined to take up any work requiring prolonged exertion. This chronic fatigue is in many cases psychological in origin and due to the absence of any definite and dynamic purpose in life. In other cases it is due to some defect in the Pranamaya Kosha which results in an inadequate supply of vital force to the physical body. Whatever its cause it acts as an obstacle because it undermines all efforts to practice Sadhana.”

Samshaya: Doubt; suspicion.

“An unshakeable faith in the efficacy of Yoga and its methods is a sine qua non for its successful practice. Such faith is needed in achieving success in any line of endeavor but more so in this line because of the peculiar conditions under which the Yogi has to work. In the Divine adventure which he has undertaken the objective is unknown and there are no clearly defined standards by which he can judge and measure his progress.

“Doubts of various kinds are therefore liable to arise in his mind. Is there really any Reality to be realized or is he merely pursuing a mirage? Are the methods he is using really effective? Are those methods the right methods for him? Has he the capacity to go through all the obstacles and reach the goal? These and other doubts of a similar nature are liable to assail his mind from time to time especially when he is passing through the periods of depression which come inevitably in the path of every aspirant.

“It is at these times that he needs Sraddha–un­shakeable faith in his objective, in himself and in the methods which he has adopted. It may not be possible to avoid these periods of depression and doubt especially in the early stages but it is his behavior and reaction to them which show whether he has true faith or not. If he can ignore them even though he feels them, he comes out of the shade into the sunshine again and resumes his journey with renewed enthusiasm. If he allows these doubts and moods to interfere with his Sadhana and relaxes his efforts, they acquire an increasing hold on his mind until he is completely side-tracked and abandons the path altogether.”

Pramada: Carelessness; fault; guilt.

“This is another obstacle which besets the path of many aspirants for the Yogic life. It has the effect of relaxing the mind and thus undermines its concentration. Some people are careless by nature and when they come into the field of Yoga they bring their carelessness with them. Carelessness is a weakness which prevents a man from achieving eminence in any line of endeavor and condemns him to a mediocre life.

“But in the field of Yoga it is not only an obstacle but a great danger and the careless Yogi is like a child who is allowed to play with dynamite. He is bound to do himself serious injury sooner or later. No one should think of treading this path who has not conquered the habit of carelessness and learnt to pay careful attention not only to important things of life but also to those which are considered unimportant.”

Alasya: Laziness; idleness; apathy; sloth.

“This is another habit which results in a distracted condition of the mind. Although it results in the same kind of ineffectiveness in life as in the case of languor it is yet different. It is a bad mental habit acquired by continued yielding to the love of comfort and ease and tendency to avoid exertion. If we may say so, languor is a purely physical defect while laziness is generally a purely psychological condition. A restoration to health automatically cures the former but a prolonged discipline based on the execution of hard and difficult tasks is the only means of curing the latter.”

Avirati: Hankering after objects; non-dispassion; sensual indulgence; lack of control; non-restraint.

“The worldly man is so immersed in the interests pertaining to his outer life that he does not get time even to think about the real problems of life. And there are many people who pass through life without having ever given any serious thought to these problems. When a person takes to the path of Yoga as a result of the dawning of Viveka and of his becoming alive to the illusions of life the momentum of the past is still behind him and it is not so easy to shut out the interests of the worldly life suddenly and completely. These hankerings after the objects of the world still continue to trouble him and cause serious distraction in his mind.

“Of course, all depends upon the reality of the Viveka. If we really see the illusions which are inherent in the pursuit of worldly objects like wealth, honour, name etc. then we lose all attraction for them and naturally give up their pursuit. But if the Viveka is not real–is of the pseudo-variety–the result of mere ‘thinking’, then there is constant struggle between the desires which drag the mind outside and the will of the Yogi who tries to make the mind dive within. Thus, worldly-mindedness can be a serious cause of Vikshepa.”

Bhranti-darshana: Delusion; erroneous view.

“This means taking a thing for what it is not. It is due generally to lack of intelligence and discrimination. A Sadhaka may, for example, begin to see lights and hear sounds of various kinds during his early practices. These things are very spurious and do not mean much and yet there are many Sadhakas who get excited about these trivial experiences and begin to think they have made great progress. Some think that they have reached high states of consciousness or are even foolish enough to think that they have seen God.

“This incapacity to assess our supernormal experiences at their proper worth is basically due to immaturity of soul and those who cannot distinguish between the essential and non-essential things in spiritual unfoldment find their progress blocked at a very early stage. They tend to get entangled in these spurious experiences of a psychic nature and are soon side-tracked. It is easy to see that the unhealthy excitement which accompanies such undesirable conditions of the mind will cause great distraction and prevent it from diving inwards.”

Alabdhabhumikatva: Non-achievement of a stage; inability to find a footing.

“The essential technique of Yoga consists, in the earlier stages, in establishing the mind firmly in the stages of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi, and after Samadhi has been attained, in pushing steadily, step by step, into the deeper levels of consciousness. In all these stages change from one state to another is involved and this is brought about by persistent effort of the will. Sometimes this passage is easy and comes after a reasonable amount of effort.

“At other times the Yogi seems to make no progress and a dead wall appears to be facing him. This failure to obtain a footing in the next stage can cause distraction and disturb the perfect equanimity of the mind unless the Yogi has developed inexhaustible patience and capacity for self-surrender.”

Anavashtitatvani: Unsteadiness; instability of mind; inability to find a footing; mental unsteadiness.

“Another kind of difficulty arises when the Yogi can get a foothold in the next stage but cannot retain it for long. The mind reverts to its previous stage and a considerable amount of effort has to be put forth in order to regain the foothold. Of course, in all such mental processes reversions of this nature are to a certain extent unavoidable. But it is one thing to lose one’s foothold in the next stage because only practice makes perfect and another thing to lose it because of the inherent fickleness of the mind. It is only when the instability is due to the inherent unsteadiness of the mind that Vikshepa can be said to be present and special treatment is called for.”

Previously: Who Is God According to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali?
Next:
How to Remove the Obstacles Which Cause Suffering

More on Om Meditation:

Reincarnating Backwards in Time, the Mother-God, and Other Questions

Reincarnating backwards

Q: Are our soul’s transmigrations limited to linear time? In other words, can, and is it natural, for a soul to reincarnate from, say, the 21st century, to the 13th?

It is never good to be dogmatic about anything, especially since language never encompasses reality fully or exactly. As Jesus said: “With God all things are possible” (Matthew 19:26).

Reincarnation usually takes place in a linear manner because as we move on from life to life we accumulate karma, which is always a forward-moving force. However much we would like to often go back and try to do better in a situation, or pick up something missed, it just does not work that way. Not doing so well in a life creates doing-better-in-a-future-life karma. As I say, karma moves us onward, even if situations are repeated in future lives.

The foregoing enquirer almost immediately sent this response:

Thank you for your prompt reply. I suppose it was just wishful thinking on my part, that it would be wonderful to sit even at the back of the crowd at the sermon on the mount.  It was a lost opportunity, I suppose. Again, thank you.

Not a lost opportunity at all! Kabbalistic tradition says that the Messiah will come twice: first as Son of Joseph and be rejected, and then as Son of David and be accepted. We are waiting for that appearance, and have a weekly Mass of petition requesting it.

So there is no reason why you and we should not be present at the second appearance. Whatever is the best for us will certainly occur.

Q: Tell me, please, where is the Mother God in Saint Thomas Christian Dharma?

Where She was originally, we have no idea because all the books from the time of Saint Thomas were burned by the Portuguese. (See The Apostle of India.) Jesus and the Virgin Mary certainly represent the divine masculine and divine feminine in God. It is sufficient for us that the basic scriptures of India present the concept of the Mother God. But to make up for what was destroyed we use The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus the Christ. There we find:

“And Spirit breathed, and that which was not manifest became the Fire and Thought of Heaven, the Father-God, the Mother-God.” (Aquarian Gospel 9:16)

“And Jesus went into an ancient plaza and taught; he spoke of Father-Mother-God; he told about the brotherhood of life.” (Aquarian Gospel 34:3)

“And in the tomb I will remain three days in sweet communion with the Christ, and with my Father-God and Mother-God.” (Aquarian Gospel 127:28)

Q: One of the questions from a meditation practitioner mentioned uncontrollable movements when concentrating on the third [eye] chakra. This reminded me of what I’ve read about what happens during Latihan in Subud, though during Latihan vocalizations are also common.

In Latihan a person opens themselves and many phenomena can manifest.

Methodical meditation is quite different and produces completely different effects–especially when chakras are involved.

For over fifty years I have been observing the kind of movements described by the questioner, and they have been 100% pathological, requiring purification. But, being pathological types, they all claimed it was “kundalini” and were proud of them. Eventually they gave up yoga and stayed bent.

More questions and Answers:

 

Who Is God According to the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali?

sage patanjaliSutras 24 through 26 of Book One of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

24. Ishwara is a particular Purusha who is untouched [aparamrishta] by the afflictions of life [kleshas], actions [karma] and the results [vipaka] and impressions [ashayai] produced by these actions.

Ishwara, God, is not a mere conglomerate of all that exists, but is a distinctive Person or Spirit, the sole independent Being on Whom all else depends. God is a particular Spirit in the sense that He can be experienced as a definite, definable Being–even pointed out by the Masters of Wisdom.

Part of His uniqueness is the fact that He “touches” and rules all things, but is absolutely untouched by anything. (The Bhagavad Gita emphasizes this, especially.) Although the Source of Existence and Action, Ishwara transcends them and is therefore untouched/unaffected by the kleshas–taints or afflictions inherent in relative existence. The kleshas are: ignorance, egotism, attractions and repulsions towards objects, and desperate clinging to physical life from the fear of death (Yoga Sutras 2:2-9). No action affects Ishwara in any degree (again, see the Gita).

Nevertheless, Ishwara is intimately connected to all things while remaining separate from them. Ishwara is present in all things as the universal Witness, and is nearer to us than anything can be, for Ishwara is the Self of our Self, the Paramatman within which our Atman exists.

25. In Him is the highest limit of Omniscience.

This can also be translated: “In Him is the unsurpassed Seed of Omniscience.” This is very important, for by perfect union with Ishwara the individual can come to share or participate in His omniscience. That is, the finite can experience the consciousness of the Infinite, just as He already experiences the consciousness of each individual being (jiva). This is a fundamental part of Samarasya–liberation (moksha or mukti).

26. Being unconditioned by time He is Teacher [Guru] even of the Ancients.

Having existed eternally, Ishwara has been the Guru of all beings, including those exalted primal beings or “gods” whom he made rulers of the worlds. The same with the Manus, the progenitors of the human race. Perhaps the most important point is that he is also the Guru of all humanity. We may have human teachers, but only God can be our Guru. Unhappily, for centuries the greedy, foolish, and unscrupulous have pretended they were gurus of other human beings, but that is a shameful fiction.

Since God is eternal, it is from Him that all knowledge has come–especially the revelation of spiritual truth. As Vyasa observes in his commentary on the Yoga Sutras: “His purpose is to give grace to living beings, by teaching knowledge and dharma [righteousness].” “There is no other but God to give the teaching which is a boat by which they can cross over the sea of samsara, and He teaches knowledge and dharma to those who take sole refuge in Him.…For all the kinds of knowledge arise from Him, as sparks of fire from a blaze or drops of water from the sea,” says Shankara, commenting on Vyasa’s words. Therefore Patanjali concludes: “Being unconditioned by time He is Guru even of the Ancients.”

God as Guru

Dwelling in the hearts of all, God continues to be the guru of questing souls. This does not mean that qualified spiritual teachers are not helpful to us, but ultimately the yogi must be guided by the Divine from within his own consciousness. “The mind is itself guru and disciple: it smiles on itself, and is the cause of its own well-being or ruin,” wrote the great poet-saint Tukaram (Tukaram’s Teachings, by S. R. Sharma, p. 19).

“The mind will eventually turn into your guru,” said Sri Sarada Devi, the consort of Sri Ramakrishna (The Gospel of the Holy Mother, p. 340).

Swami Brahmananda, the “spiritual son” of Sri Ramakrishna, in speaking about the role of an external guru said: “Know this! There is no greater guru than your own mind. When the mind has been purified by prayer and contemplation it will direct you from within. Even in your daily duties, this inner guru will guide you and will continue to help you until the goal is reached” (The Eternal Companion, p. 120).

Therefore Tukaram wrote in one of his hymns: “The guru-disciple relationship is a sign of immaturity” (Tukaram’s Teachings, p. 20). The fact that Shankara writes in the Nirvanastakam: “I am neither guru nor disciple [gururnaiwa shishya],” shows that in realization of the Self the limiting guru-disciple relationship is left behind and dissolves away. (There is, however a non-limiting guru-disciple relationship, such as is seen in the relationship of Yogananda with Sri Yukteswar–especially after Yogananda’s return to India in 1935. This grows out of the earlier guru-disciple interaction if the guru is a perfectly liberated being and the disciple is positively moving toward liberation himself.)

Yogiraj Shyama Charan Lahiri Mahashaya wrote to a student regarding the guru: “No one does anything; all is done by God. The individual [that seems to be the guru] is only an excuse; remain abidingly focused on that Divine Guru; in this is blessing.” And to another: “Guru is the one who is all; Guru is the one who is merciful. You are the Guru within yourself” (Garland of Letters (Patravali), Letters 12 and 45). In Purana Purusha by Dr. Ashoke Kumar Chatterjee it is recorded that Yogiraj made these two statements: “I am not a guru. I do not hold the distinction of “guru” and “disciple.” “The Self is the Guru…the immortal, imperishable Guru.” Just as Patanjali says that Ishwara–God–is the guru of all, so did Lahiri Mahasaya. Ishwara is identified in Indian thought with the solar power. In his diary Lahiri Mahasaya draw the sun and wrote beside it: “This is the Feet of the Guru.” He also wrote: “The Sun is the Form of the Guru.”

Yogananda on gurudom

When Paramhansa Yogananda, who first made Lahiri Mahashaya known in the West, was questioned “about his own role in the religious evolution of this planet,” the great yogi replied: “The one Ocean has become all its waves. You should look to the Ocean, not to the little waves protruding on its bosom” (Swami Kriyananda. The Path, p. 493). Another time he objected strongly to the suggestion that only his writings should be read in the public services of Self-Realization Fellowship, saying: “I came to make you God-conscious, not Yogananda-conscious.” At other times he said: “There is no such thing as ‘Yogananda-realization,’ only God-realization.” To someone who asked about a “disciple,” Yogananda replied firmly: “I never speak of people as my disciples. God is the Guru: They are His disciples” (The Path, p. 327).

Progress without a guru?

If an aspirant neither has nor desires an external guru he can still succeed in spiritual life. That this is so is proven by the fact that the twentieth-century Masters Shirdi Sai Baba, Neem Karoli Baba, Paramhansa Nityananda, Aurobindo Ghosh, Swami Sivananda of Rishikesh, Swami Rama of Hardwar (Ram Kunj), Om Baba of Delhi, Swami Ramdas of Anandashram, and Ramana Maharshi attained enlightenment without the agency of an external guru. Ramana Maharshi particularly emphasized that God is the guru of all, saying: “Only the Supreme Self, which is ever shining in your heart as the reality, is the Sadguru [True Guru]” (The Power of the Presence, p. 116).

The supreme example of someone who attained enlightenment without a guru is Buddha, who is referred to in Buddhist texts as “Self-Awakened.” All spiritual life is self-initiated from within; we are both guru and disciple as Krishna and Arjuna symbolize in the Bhagavad Gita.

Saints on gurudom

Paramhansa Nityananda said: “He [God] is the One guru, the guru Who is in all, the guru of the universe. No [human] person can be your guru, a person can only be secondary. The real guru is Guru of the Universe” (Chidakasha Gita 105). To emphasize this, Nityananda never gave initiation or became a “guru” in any manner or sense, though he was inspirer, guide, and advisor to many.

Neem Karoli Baba was wont to say, “I make devotees [of God], not disciples” (Divine Reality, by Ravi Prakash Pande, p. ii.).

Swami Sivananda of Rishikesh used to say: “I abhor gurudom”–the debasing of the student-teacher interaction to a personality cult.

Swami Yatiswarananda, Vice-president of the Ramakrishna Mission, wrote to one of his students: “We really are not gurus. We bring the message of the Guru of gurus. What all service you can get from me you will. But please turn to Him for light and guidance, for peace and blessedness. As you yourself are finding, human beings are not good enough. The Lord, the Guru of gurus, alone can give us the shelter, the illumination and the bliss we need.” That sums it up very well.

Another leading spiritual figure of the Ramakrishna Mission, Swami Premeshananda, once wrote: “We have presently become inundated by this ‘guru doctrine.’ The purpose of the guru is to lead us to the realization of God; but God has been left behind, and the guru has become the latest fashion. So it is not safe to talk about a particular person. If one places a powerful personality before others, they will hold on to him instead of to God.”

The aspiring yogi can then feel safe and assured that God will be his guru, just as He has been for all the enlightened throughout the ages.

Sri Ramakrishna on gurus

In conclusion let us look at the words of Sri Ramakrishna himself on the subject as found in the Majumdar translation of The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna: “Satchidananda [Existence-Consciousness-Bliss] alone is the guru; He alone will teach” (1.2.8; also: 4.2.1, 5.1.2, 5.5.1). “If somebody addresses me as a guru I say, ‘Away you rascal!’ How can I be a guru? There is no other guru except Satchidananda. There is no other refuge but Him. He alone is the ferryman who takes one across the ocean of relative existence” (1.12.8). “A man cannot be a guru” (2.19.6). “He who says of himself that he is a guru is a person of poor understanding” (3.17.4). “The more you will advance, the more you will see that it is He who has become everything and it is He who is doing everything. He alone is the guru and He alone is the spiritual ideal of your choice. He alone is giving jnana, bhakti and everything” (4.26.2). “Do you pray to Satchidananda Guru every morning? Do you?” (4.9.2).

In the Nikhilananda translation, on October 22, 1885, when someone refers to someone as Sri Ramakrishna’s disciple, he says: “There is not a fellow under the sun who is my disciple. On the contrary, I am everybody’s disciple. All are the children of God. All are His servants. I too am a child of God. I too am His servant. ‘Uncle Moon’ is every child’s uncle!”

Shankara comments: “Just as the human teachers turn their face towards the wholly devoted pupil and give him their favor, so this supreme teacher gives his favor when there is pure contemplation on him.”

4 Questions on Meditation

MeditateQ: Where is the atma (soul) located in our body?

The atma is everywhere in the body and beyond as the basis of the aura. Therefore there is no need to put the attention on any particular point when we meditate. The heart and the third eye are recommended only because of the character of the energy (shakti) and bhava accessed at those places.

Q: Should we focus on the atma when we do meditation since the atma is a tiny part of the God or the Atman?

The object of meditation should be identical with the atma itself. Otherwise the meditation will not lead to atmic experience (atmadarshana) or knowledge (atmajnana). This is extremely important for the yogi to realize. Otherwise a great deal of time and even an entire incarnation can be wasted.

Q: Whenever I practice meditation by focusing my mind at the third eye chakra, unintentionally my upper arms and other limbs get moving without being able to stop it. In addition to it especially when I put my hands on top of my head I feel something like cool breeze flows on may hair. What does it mean?

I have known two or three yogis who experienced this. In my opinion it is an indication of the need for the yogi’s further purification. No one but someone who can observe this phenomenon firsthand can really advise as to its nature and remedy. Sometimes it is a purely neurological problem.

Q: When we meditate should we close or open our eyes? Which one is better?

Closing the eyes is best because it removes visual distractions and reduces brain-wave activity by about seventy-five percent, thus helping greatly to calm the mind. A person who cannot meditate with closed eyes is in a pathological condition and needs the attention of an adept yogi he knows personally (not someone at a distance like myself) or even a neurologist.

Read more articles on Meditation:

Succession from Saint Gregorios of Parumala

by:
August 22, 2014
Saint Gregorios of ParumalaA Photo of
Saint Gregorios of Parumala,
The Wonder-Worker

Q: Is your Apostolic Succession from the Saint Thomas Christian Church in India?

Yes, we do have Apostolic Succession from the Saint Thomas Christian Church in India.

Our succession comes from Saint Gregorios of Parumala who with Mar Julius Alvarez consecrated Joseph Rene Vilatte at the order of Ignatius Peter III, Patriarch of the Syrian (Jacobite) Orthodox Church in 1892.

Archbishop Vilatte consecrated William Henry Francis Brothers in 1913. In 1967 Archbishop Brothers consecrated Joseph Anthony MacCormack.

And in 1977 Archbishop MacCormack consecrated Abbot-Bishop George Burke, our present Bishop.

For more information about the St. Thomas Christian Tradition, read the following articles: